The systems of heating, ventilation of air conditioning are an integral part of all modern carriages. Their effectiveness and functionality affects the so called quality of the interior air conditioning. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are also installed in wagons, if required by the goods transport, loading and unloading.
Design of these systems is based on calculations of the needed thermal/cooling output. The calculations are followed with the project stage when it is important to design the heat/coolant distribution system in such a way that the temperature of the conditioned space would correspond to the standards and it would be homogeneously distributed across the carriage.
Passenger carriages are equipped with various heating systems or their combinations. The most frequently used systems include electrical hot air systems, hot water systems, lately complemented with new developments such as infrared systems. The goal is low energy demand of the resulting system and maximum use of all potential heat sources (such as heat produced by the traction etc.).
The wagons for goods transport are also sometimes equipped with heating, ventilation and cooling. A good example are the boiler wagons where the transported substance is heated before release. Another example are cooling wagons for transport of quick-decay goods.
Effectiveness of every heating, cooling or air conditioning system depends of the quality of thermal insulation used and its construction design. The purpose of the insulation is to minimise heat transfer between the heated space and its surroundings. The thermal insulation must comply with strict technical requirements, such as non-flammability, non-settlement, non-infiltration, chemical non-aggressiveness, harmlessness to health etc.
VÚKV a.s. deals in research and development of heating, cooling, ventilation and air conditioning systems. These development works include calculations of thermal balance and design solutions of insulation systems. The research and development takes into account a number of different parameters such as the nature of the carriage operation, the local climatic conditions of the operation environment playing an important role in the abovementioned systems design.
Most clients also require testing of the system compliance with the design parameters. The tests include heating, ventilation and air condition tests, all of them performed also by the VÚKV a.s.